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Full text of "Home canning of meat"

Historic, archived document 

Do not assume content reflects current 
scientific knowledge, policies, or practices. 



HOME CANNING 





!*!p!l*i 



V' Only sood fresh meat for canning 
y' Meat, utensils, everything clean 
^ Directions up to date 



v' Stedtm-pressure canner in good order 

V GlqsS jars or tin cans — seal airtight 

V SMrje cool and dry 



^DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE 






£i 



ccr 



Many families can chicken, beef, and other 
tome-produced meats to help spread the supply 
trough the year. 

With canned meat on the shelf, you'll quickly 
lave a savory stew, meat pie, or many another 
lood dish . . . timesavers for busy days. 

Directions given here tell how to can meat safely 
ind so as to hold food value and flavor. 



What to can. — Beef, veal, mutton, Iambi >ork, 
and rabbit are all successfully canned at 1 >me. 
So are various kinds of poultry — chicken, uck, 
Soose, guinea, squab, turkey. Meat of ' irge- 
game animals may be canned like beef; tl it of 
game birds and small-game animals like pciltry. 

What not to can. — Mixtures such a the 
following are not recommended for home ca ling: 
Chile con came . . . hash and stews madfiwith 
-vegetables . . . headcheese . . . liver pare... 
pork and beans . . . scrapple. . . soups madl with 
cereals a^d vegetables. n 

Commercial canners succeed with these special- 
ties because they have the needed equipment 
and laboratories to check their results. F* the 
home canner, it is safer to can each food byjitself 
and combine when ready to serve. 

Fresh . . ^ clean -. -. , cold. — CarJonly 
meat from healthy animals in tiptop condition, 
slaughtered and handled in a strictly solitary 
way. U 

After killing, chill meat at once and kHep it 
chilled until canning time; or else can thJmneat 
as soon as body heat is gone from it. (milled 



meat is easier to handje. , 

Chilling calls for refrigeration or for weather 
that can be counted on to keep the meat at 
40° F. or lower. Meat held at temperatures near 
freezing may be canned at any convenient time 
within a few days after killing. 

Avoid freezing meat, if possible. — If meat 
does freeze, keep it frozen until canning time. 
Thawed meat is very perishable. Cut or saw the 
frozen meat into strips 1 or 2 inches thick just 
before canning. 

Choice of ways to heat and pack. — There 
are two ways of packing meat for home canning. 
One is the hot pack. The other is the raw pack. 
The Canning Timetable tells how to use these 
methods for different kinds of meat. 

Don't fry. — It's best not to fry meat before 
canning. The brown crust that tastes so good in 
fresh-cooked chicken or steak becomes dry and 
hard and the canned meat may even have a 
disagreeable flavor. 

Salt. — Salt does not help preserve meat in 
canning. Add it if you wish. 



USE A STEAM-PRESSURE CANNER 

For safe canning, meat must be heated through 
and through in a canner. "Processing" is the 
word for this. The meat must be processed at 
sufficiently high temperature and held there long 
enough to make sure of killing bacteria that cause 
dangerous spoilage. 

The only practical way to get this high tem- 
perature is by using a steam-pressure canner. By 
holding steam under pressure this way you can 
quickly get a temperature of 240° F. or more. 

If meat is not properly processed, it may spoil 
or even lead to serious food poisoning. 

If you have no steam-pressure canner, try to 
team with a neighbor who has one, or go to a 
food-preservation center where there is steam- 
pressure equipment. Otherwise, preserve the 
meat some other way — by curing or freezing. 



It Is not safe to can meat i n — 
a boiling- water bath, an oven, a steamer without 
pressure, or an open kettle. None of these will 
heat the meat hot enough to kill dangerous bac- 
teria in a reasonable time. 

Oven canning is impossible with tin cans and- 
not safe with glass jars, for more than one reason. 
Even though oven temperature goes to 250° F. or 
higher, food inside jars stays at about boiling — 
21 2° F. Moreover this method has caused serious 
bums and cuts. Jars in an oven may burst, 
blowing out the oven door. 

A pressure saucepan is built for cooking at 
15 pounds pressure. Its gage is not marked at 
the 10 pounds pressure recommended for meat 
canning, and it is impossible to estimate this 
pressure accurately enough for -safe processing. 

\ 



YOUR PRESSURE CANNER- 
3 QUESTIONS 

1. Do you live high above sea level? 

If so, don't forget that you must use more pres- 
sure in your canner to* heat meat all the way 
through to 240° F. 

The general directions call for canning meat at 
10 pounds steam pressure, 240° F. Your rule is: 
For each 2,000 feet above sea level, add 1 pound 
of pressure. Process for the length of time given 
in the Canning Timetable (pp. 10-14). 

2. Is your pressure gage accurate? 

A weighted gage needs only to be thoroughly 
clean,- it needs no adjustment. 

A dial gage should be checked before the 
canning season, oftener if you use the canner a 
great deal. Ask your county home demonstra- 
tion agent, your dealer, or manufacturer about 
checking. If the test shows your gage is "off," 
tie a tag on the canner stating how far off it is. 

If it reads 5 pounds or more off, you'd better 
get a new one. But if it is 1 to 4 pounds off, you 
can correct it this way: 

The meat is to be processed at 10 pounds 
steam pressure. 

So // the gage reads high — 

1 pound high — process at 1 1 pounds. 

2 pounds high — process at 1 2 pounds. 

3 pounds high — process at 1 3 pounds. 

4 pounds high — process at 1 4 pounds. 

If the gage reads low — 

1 pound low — process at 9 pounds. 

2 pounds low — process at 8 pounds. 

3 pounds low — process at 7 pounds. 

4 pounds low — process at 6 pounds. 



3. Is the canner thoroughly clean? 

Wash the canner kettle well, before and after 
each using. Don't wash the lid — just wipe it 
with a soapy cloth, then with a damp, clean 
cloth, and dry well. 

Keep pet cock and safety valve clear at all 
times. 

When the canner is working. — Follow the 
manufacturer's directions for your own canner. 
The pictures on pages 5-9 show how to proceed. 

KNIVES, PANS, TABLE TOPS 

For success in your canning, have every utensil 
and piece of equipment just as clean as can be. 
Leave everything thoroughly clean after the 
day's work. 

Metal, enamelware, porcelain. — Scrub 
with hot soapy water; rinse with boiling water. 

Wood. — Cutting boards, table tops where 
meat has rested, and wood utensils need "elbow 
grease" and special treatment to keep bacteria 
under control. So scrape them, scrub with hot 
soapy water, and rinse with boiling water. Then 
disinfect, using a hypochlorite solution or a 
chloride of lime bleaching fluid diluted according 
to directions on can. Let this stay on about 
half an hour; then wash it off with scalding 
water. 

Linoleum. — Don't let meat lie on linoleum, 
for scalding and disinfecting are too harsh for 
linoleum. 

Cloths. — Rinse off meat juices with cool water. 
Then wash cloths in soapy hot water and boil. 
Rinse in the same kind of disinfectant you use for 
wood. 



,. 



IF YOU USE TIN CANS 

Use plain tin cans, in good condition. — 

C-enamel and R- or sanitary-enamel cans prevent 
some foods from discoloring, but this is not the 
case with meats. The fat may cause enamel to 
pejel off, and, while this is not harmful, it makes 
th£ canned meat look unattractive. So use only 
plain tin cans' for meat, preferably with paper 
gaskets. 

See that cans, lids, and gaskets are perfect. 
Discard badly bent, dented, or rusty cans and 
lids with scratched or torn gaskets. 

Sizes to use: 



NO. 2 





No. 2 can — holds 2^ cups (20 ounces) 
No. 2V2 can — holds 3 V2 cups (28 ounces) 
No. 3 can — holds about 4 cups (33 ounces) 

Tin cans calf for a sealer. — Before you buy 
tin cans, be sure you have a sealer in good working 
order, or else arrange to can in tin at a food- 
preservation center. 

Make sure that the sealer you 
use is properly adjusted. One 
test is to put a little water into 
a can, seal it, then cover the 
can with boiling water and let 
it stand a few minutes. If air 
bubbles rise from the can, jhe 
seam is not tight, and the sealer 
needs further adjusting. 




BC9 



IF YOU'RE USING GLASS JARS 

Main types of jars and how to seal them 




Zinc porcelain-lined 
cap with shoulder 
rubber ring, to fit 
standard Mason 
jar. 



When canning. — Fit wet ring down on jar 
shoulder, but don't stretch more than needed. 
Fill jar. Then screw cap down firmly and turn 
it back K inch. 

After canning. — As soon as you take jar from 
canner, quickly screw cap down fight, to complete 
seal. 



Glass lid 




Lightning-type jar is 
sealed with glass 
lid and rubber ring, 
field in place by 
wire bail. 



When canning. — Fit wet rubber ring on ledge 
at top of empty jar. Fill jar. Put on glass lid. 
Push long wire over top of lid, so it fits into groove. 
Leave short wire up. 

After canning. — As soon as you take jar from 
canner, quickly push short wire down to complete 
seal. 

4 




Glass lid and top- 
seal rubber ring, 
held in place by 
metal screw band, 
to fit standard 
Mason jar. 



When canning. — Fill jar; fit rubber ring on 
glass lid. Put lid on jar with rubber side down. 
Screw metal band on tight . . . then, using your 
thumb as a guide, turn back almost a quarter turn, 
or so that band and jar just mesh together. 
Caution: If the band is screwed too tight, the 
jar may break. 

After canning. — As soon as you take jar from 
canner, screw band down tight. 

Next day. — When jar has cooled, take off 
screw band if you can without forcing. If the 
band sticks, cover for a minute or two with a hot, 
damp cloth, to loosen. 



Metal lid with 

sealing 

compound 




Flat metal lid edged 
with sealing com- 
pound, held in 
place by metal 
screw band, to fit 
standard Mason 
jar. 



Just before use. — Some of these self-sealing- 
type lids need boiling, others only a dip in hot 
water. Follow manufacturer's directions care- 
fully. 



When canning. — Fill jar,- put lid on so that seal- 
ing compound is next to glass. Screw metal band 
on firmly, but not so hard that you cut through the 
compound. When screwed down firmly, this lid 
has enough "give" toMet air escape during canning. 

After canning. — This is a self-sealer. Leave 
"as is" when you take from canner. Don't tighten 
further,- you may break the seal. 

Next day.— When jar has cooled, take off screw 
band if you can without forcing. If band sticks, 
cover for a minute or two with a hot, damp cloth, 
to loosen. 

Sizes to use. — Don't can meat in any jar 
larger than a quart. Pints are even better than 
quarts. It takes so long to process meat packed in 
half gallon jars the f some meat is overcooked 
while there may be "cold spots" within the jar. 
And in these cold spots spoilage bacteria may 
survive. 

Jars and lids — perfect and clean. — See 

that you have a lid to make an airtight seal on 
each jar. 

Discard jars or lids with cracks, chips, or dents — 
any defects preventing airtight seals. 

Wash jars in hot soapy water and rinse well,- 
also lids unless manufacturer directs otherwise. 

Rubber jar rings. — If a cap calls for a sepa- 
rate rubber ring, use a clean, new ring of the right 
size for the jar. Don't test by stretching. 

Scrub rubber rings with a brush in hot soapy 
water. Then boil 10 minutes in water and baking 
soda (1 quart water, 1 tablespoon soda to each 
dozen rings). Rinse well. Start with fresh soda 
and water for each lot. This may help keep 
rings from flavoring food. 



« 



,~ 



' ' 



HOW TO CAN POU 



Directions given here for chicken 
apply also to other poultry, rabbit, 
and small same. These pictures 
show- the lightning-type glass jars; 
other types of jars (p. 4) or tin 
cans may be used. 

Directions for canning poultry 
without bone are given in the 
Timetable (pp. 10-11). 

For best flavored canned 
chicken, select plump stewing 
hens. Young birds need the same 
processing, often lack flavor, and 
may cook to pieces. 

A quick and simple way to 
cut up a bird, is shown. Instead 
of drawing the bird, you cut away 
the edible pieces. 




1. Wash the picked bird, but don't soak 
it in water. Then wipe with a clean, 
damp cloth. 



2. With a sharp knife, cut off wings and 
!egs at joint. Pulling on wing or leg 
while cutting will help in disjointing bird 



3. Divide the body by cutting from end 
of breastbone to backbone on a line 
along ends of ribs. Don't cut so deep 
that you cut into the body cavity and 
puncture the entrails. Turn bird over; 
cut other side the same way. 




4. Lay bird on back. Break the back- 
bone. Cut around vent; remove and dis- 
card entrails, saving the giblets. Be care- 
ful not to break gall bladder or meat will 
be bitter. Remove and discard lungs and 
kidneys, and cut off oil sac near tail. 



5. Separate breast by cutting straight 
down between wishbone and point of 
breast. Leave meat attached to wishbone. 



6. Remove breast meat from center bone 
by carving down side of breast. Leave 
bone in other meaty piece. 



7. Cut legs into drumsticks and second 
joints. Saw drumsticks off short, if de- 
sired. As you cut, trim off large lumps 
of fat. Sort pieces into 3 piles: Meaty 
pieces, bony pieces, and giblets. 



HOW 



N POULTRY 




8. You'll need broth or hot water as 
liquid. To make broth: Use bony pieces. 
Cover with cold water; simmer until meat 
is tender. Drain broth into bowl; skim 
off fat. Strip meat from bones and, if 
desired, can as little pieces. 



9. Pour hot broth or hot water over raw 
meaty pieces in cooking pan, to cover 
meat. Put on lid and precook meat un- 
til medium done, or until pieces, when 
cut, show almost no pink color at the 
center. 



10. If using salt, put level measure in 
empty glass jars: V2 teaspoon in pint 
jars.- 1 teaspoon in quarts. To heat jars 
ana lids ready for packing, pour about 
3 inches of warm water into canner, set 
in loaded rack, and put on canner fid . . . 
but don't clamp. Set over heat. 



11. When jars are hot and ready for 
packing, take one at a time from hot 
water. Work quickly so chicken will be 
hot when jar is filled. 




16. Wipe jar rim and rubber ring clean. 
One greasy bit can keep the jar from 
sealing airtight. 



1 7. Put on glass lid so groove on top is 
at right angles to bail. Push long wire 
bail over lid into groove. Leave the 
short wire up, loose. Work quickly. 



18. Put each jar back into canner as 
soon as it's filled. If some of the water 
in the canner has boiled out, replace it 
to be sure the canner won't boil dry and 
be damaged during canning. Fasten lid 
securely on canner. 



19. Let steam pour from open pet cock 
or weighted gage opening for at feast 
10 minutes. Then shut pet cock, or put 
on weighted gage. 



HOT 



Wl 



BO 




12. Dip a rubber ring in hot water and 
put the hot ring on jar . . . if using 
another type of jar, follow directions on 
page 4 for adjusting rubbers and tops. 



13. Pack second joints and drumsticks 
with skin next to glass; breast in center of 
jar; smaller pieces fitted in. Leave about 
1 inch at the top for head space. 



14. Cover chicken with hot broth, using 
about 3 /2 to % cup for each quart jar. 
Again leave 1 inch for head space. 



1 5. Work out air bubbles in jar by push- 
ing a knife blade down the sides. Add 
more broth, if needed, to cover chicken, 
but be sure to leave 1 inch head space. 




20. When pressure is at 10 pounds, note 
the time . . . adjust heat under canner 
to keep pressure steady. Process chicken 
with bone 65 minutes for pint jars,- 75 for 
quarts. Watch the clock. When time's 
up, slide canner away from heat. 



21. To keep from drawing liquid out of 
glass jars, let pressure fall to zero. This 
will take about half an hour. Then wait 
a minute or two, no longer, before slowly 
opening pet cock. Unfasten lid arid tilt 
far side up, to keep steam away from 
your face. 



22. Take out jars; quickly push the short 
wire down to complete seal of each jar. 
Protect your hands with thick cloth. Set 
jars out to cool right side up, on a rack 
or thick cloth or paper. Keep jars away 
from drafts and sudden cold. Don't 



from drafts 
cover. 



23. Let jars cool overnight. Then test 
for leaks by turning jar partly over in 
hands. Don't try this with jars of self- 
sealing type . . . tap lid with spoon — a 
ringing sound means a good seal, a dull 
Rat note a poor seal. 



HOW TO CAN PORK 



These pictures show fresh pork. 
Beef and other lean meats may be 
canned the same way. Glass jars 
(see p. 4) may be used as well as 
tin cans. 

For canning meat in large 
pieces, select cuts commonly used 
for roasts, steaks, or chops. Cuts 
that contain more connective tis- 
sue or bone and small pieces may 
be canned as stew meat, or ground 
meat, or soup . . . keep them 
clean and cold until ready to can. 




1. With a clean, damp cloth, wipe cuts 
chosen for canning in large pieces. Cut 
meat from bane. Set aside bones for 
soup. 



2. Trim away most of the fat without 
unduly slashing the lean. Too much fat 
makes meat hard to process. 



3. Wash tin cans in cool water — no 
soap — and rinse. Don't wash can lids. 
If you add salt, put it in empty cans: 
V2 teaspoon (level measure) in No. 2 
can/ 3 /a teaspoon in No. 2V£ can; 1 tea- 
spoon in No. 3 can. 




8. Wipe can lids with a damp cloth. If 
using paper gaskets, be sure to keep 
them dry. • Place a lid on each can, 
gasket side down. 



9. Seal cans immediately. Follow di- 
rections that came with your sealer. The 
finished seam between (id and can should 
be smooth and even. Wipe the sealed 
cans clean of grease . . . ready for 



1 0. Have about 3 inches of boiling water 
in steam-pressure canner ... so if won't 
boil dry and be damaged. Place rack 
with cans in canner. A 7-quart canner 
will hold cans stacked two-deep. 



11. Fasten lid securely on canner. Let 
steam pour from open pet cock or weighted 
gage opening for at least 10 minutes. 
Then shut pet cock or put on weighted 
gage. 



II III I I 'I 



OR OTHE 




4. Cut meat in can-length strips, so that 
grain of the meat runs the length of tf\e 
can. Use tidbits to fill space, or set them 
aside to can for stew meat, ground meat, 
or soup. Fill cans to top with one or 
more strips of meat. 



5. Set open cans in a large vessel with a 
good lid. Have water about 2 inches 
below can tops. Cover vessel and heat 
at slow boil. 



6. If you have a thermometer, insert it to 
center of can. • Meat is ready when tem- 
perature at center of can is 170° F. If 
you have no thermometer, cook until 
meat is medium done, about 50 minutes. 



7. As you take out each can, press meat 
down about l /2 inch below rim. Add 
boiling water, if needed, to fill can with 
liquid to top. 




12. When pressure is at 10 pounds, note 
the time . . . adjust heat under canner 
to~ keep pressure steady. Process No. 3 
or No. 2V2 cans packed with large pieces 
of meat 90 minutes; process No. 2 cans 
65 minutes. When time's up, slide canner 
from heat. 



13. With No. 3 cans, let pressure fall to 
ze>o (about V2 hour), wait a minute or 
two. no longer, then slowly open pet 
cock. With smaller cans, open pet cock 
without waiting for pressure to fair? Un- 
fasten cover, tilt lid far side up, to keep 
steam away from your face. 



14. Take out cans with tongs or thick 
cloth and cool at once in clean, cold 
water — preferably running wafei — until 
cans are lukewarm . . . still warm enough 
to dry off quickly so as to prevent rust. 



1 5. Stagger the cans as you stack them, 
to speed cooling. Before labeling, wipe 
clean and examine for leaky seals. Store 
in a cool, dry place. 



CANNING TIMETABLE 



POULTRY 



Hot pack, with bone 



1 . Bone the breast, saw drumsticks off short, if desired, but leave bone in 
other meaty pieces, such as second joints.. Trim off large lumps of fat. 
Sort into meaty pieces and bony pieces. Set aside giblets to can 
separately. 

2. Broth or hot water will be needed as liquid. To make broth, use 
bony pieces: Cover them with cold water, simmer until meat is tender. 
Drain broth into bowl; skim off fat. Remaining meat stripped from 
bone may be canned as little pieces. 

3. Pour hot broth or hot water over raw meaty pieces in cooking pan to 
cover meat. Put on lid and precook until meat is medium done, or, 
when cut, shows almost no pink color at center of pieces. Stir oc- 
casionally, so meat will heat evenly. 



4. If salt is desired, put level measure into clean, empty containers: 
% teaspoon in pint jar or N 
1 teaspoon in quart jar or No. 3 can 



. 2 can,- % teaspoon in No. 2/2 can,- 



5. Pack second joints and drumsticks. Have skin next to glass or tin. 
Fit breasts into center, smaller pieces where needed. Leave about 
1 inch above meat in glass jars for head space,- )'% inch in tin cans. 

6. Cover meat with hot broth, using about }/i to % cup for each quart 
container. Leave 1 inch for head space in jars,- fill cans to top. 

7. Work out air bubbles with knife. Add more liquid, if needed, to 
cover meat. Be sure to leave 1 inch head space in jars, and have 
tin cans filled to top. 

B. Adjust lids on glass jars (p. 4); seal tin cans. 

- 

9. Process at once in the steam pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure 
(240° F.)— 

Pint jars 65 min. No. 2 cans 55 min. 

Quart jars 75 min. No. 2MJ and No. leans. . . 75 mi 

10 



Hot pack, without bone 

Follow directions for hot-packed poultry with bone, with these excep- 
tions: 

Remove bone — but not skin — from meaty pieces. You can bone 
poultry either raw, or after precooking. 

Boned poultry must be processed in the steam pressure canner longer 
than poultry with bone. Process at 10 pounds pressure (240° F.)— 

Pint jars 75 min. No. 2 cans 65 min. 

Quart jars 90 min. No. 2Vk and No. 3 cans. . . 90 min. 

Raw pack, with bone 

1 . Bone the breast, saw drumsticks off short, if desired, but leave bone 
in other meaty pieces, such as second joints. Trim off large lumps of 
fat. Sort into meaty pieces and bony pieces. Set giblets aside to 
can separately. 

2. If salt is desired, put level measure into clean, empty containers: 
Vi teaspoon in pint jar or No. 2 can,- % teaspoon in No. 1}{ can,- 
1 teaspoon in quart jar or No. 3 can. 

3. Pack second joints and drumsticks. Have skin next to glass or tin. 
Fit breasts into center, smaller pieces where needed. Pack glass jars 
to about 1 inch of top,- pack tin cans to top. 

4. Set open jars or cans in large vessel with warm water about 2 inches 
below rim of jar or can. Cover vessel and heat at slow boil until 
meat in all containers is steaming hot and medium done, about 50 
minutes in tin cans; 75 minutes in glass jars. If you have a thermom- 
eter, meat is heated enough when center of jar registers 1 70° F. 

5. Adjust lids on glass jars (p. 4),- seal tin cans. 

6. Process at once in the steam pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure 
(240° F.)— 

Pint jars 65 min. No. 2 cans 55 min. 

Quart jars 75 min. No. 2V^ and No. 3 cans. . . 75 min. 



CANNING TIMETABLE 



Raw pack, without bone 

Follow directions for raw-packed poultry with bone, with these excep- 
tions: 

Remove bone — but not skin — from meaty pieces before packing. 

Boned chicken must be processed longer in the steam pressure canner 
than chicken with bone. Process at 1 pounds pressure (240° F.) — 

Pint jars. - 75 min. No. 2 cans 65 min. 

Quart jars 90 min. No. 2V2 and No. 3 cans. . . 90 min. 

GIBLETS 

Because of flavor, it is best to can livers alone. Gizzards and hearts, 
may be canned together. Since these are ordinarily canned and used 
in small quantities, directions are given only for pint glass jars and No. 2 
tin cans. 

Hot pack 

1. Put giblets in cooking pan. Cover with broth made from bony pieces, 
or hot water. Cover pan and precook giblets until medium done. 
Stir occasionally. 

2. If salt is desired, put level measure into clean, empty containers: 
% -teaspoon in pint jar or No. 2 can. 



3. Pack giblets hot. Leave about 1 inch above meat in glass jars for 
head space,- % inch in tin cans. 

4. Cover giblets with hot broth or hot water. Leave 1 inch for head 
space in jars; fill cans to top. 

5. Work out air bubbles with knife. Add more liquid, if needed, to 
cover meat. Be sure to leave 1 inch head space in jars and have 
cans filled to top. 

6. Adjust lids on glass jars (p. 4); seal tin cans. 

7. Process at once in the steam pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure 
(240° F.)— 



Pint jars 75 min. No. 2 cans. 

RABBIT 



65 min. 



Prepare the meaty pieces, with or without bone, and pack and process 
as for chicken. 



Acknowledgment is made to the research laboratories of 
the National Canners Association for aid in arriving at the 
processing times and temperatures given in this pamphlet. 



CANNING TIMETABLE 



BEEF, VEAL, PORK, LAMB 

For canning as large pieces, use loin and other cuts suitable for 
roasts, steaks, or chops. For canning as stew meat, use the less tender 
cuts and smaller pieces. 

Cut meat from bone. Set aside bones to make soup. Trim away most 
of the fat without unduly slashing the lean. 

For larger pieces, cut into pieces that will slip easily into the glass jars 
or tin cans, with the grain of the meat running lengthwise. 

The smaller pieces of stew meat are handled and processed just like 
larger pieces. 

Hot pack 

1. Put meat in large shallow pan,- add jusr enough water to keep from 
sticking. Cover pan and precook meat slowly until medium done, 
stirring occasionally, so meat will heat evenly. 

2. If salt is desired, put level measure into clean, empty containers: 
K teaspoon in pint jars or No. 2 cans; % teaspoon in No. 2% cans,- 
1 teaspoon in quart jars or No. 3 cans. 

3. Pack meat hot. Leave about 1 inch above meat for head space in 
glass jars,- Vz inch in tin cans. 

4. Pour in hot broth or hot water to cover meat. Again leave 1 inch at 
top of glass jars for head space; fill tin cans to top. 

5. Work out air bubbles with knife. Add more liquid, if needed, to 
cover meat. Be sure to leave 1 inch head space in jars, and have 
cans filled to top. 

6. Adjust lids on glass jars (p. 4); seal tin cans. 

7. Process at once in the steam pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure 
(240° F.)— 



12 



Pint jars 75 min. No. 2 cans 65 min. 

Quart jors 90 min. No. 2V£ and No. 3 cans. . 90 min. 



Raw pack 

1 . If salt is desired, put level measure into clean, empty containers: 
X A teaspoon in pint jars or No. 2 cans,- % teaspoon in No. T& cans,- 
1 teaspoon in quart jars or No. 3 cans. 

2. Pack containers with raw, lean meat. Leave about 1 inch above 
meat in glass jars,- fill tin cans to top. 

3. Set open jars or cans in large vessel with warm water about 2 inches 
below rim of jar or can. Cover vessel and heat at slow boil until 
meat in all jars or cans is steaming hot and medium done, about 50 
minutes in tin cans,- about 75 minutes in glass jars. If you have a 
thermometer, meat is heated enough when center of jar or can registers 
170° F. Press meat down into tin cans % Inch below rims and add 
boiling water, if needed, to fill to top. 

4. Adjust lids on glass jars (p. 4); seal tin cans. 

5. Process a\ once in the steam pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure 
(240° F.)- 

Pint jars 75 min. No. 2 cans 65 min. 

Quart jars . . ." 90 min. No. 2% and No. 3 cans .... 90 min . 

GROUND MEAT 

For grinding, use small pieces or meat from the less tender cuts, but 
make sure the meat is fresh and kept clean and cold. Never mix in 
scraps of doubtful freshness . . . they may spoil a whole batch; and 
don't use lumps of fat. 

If desired, add 1 level teaspoon of salt to the pound of ground meat, 
mixing well. 

Hot pack 

1. Form ground meat into fairly thin cakes that can be packed in glass 
jars or tin cans without breaking. 

2. Put meat cakes into cooking pan. Precook in oven until medium 
done or, when cut into, red color at center of cakes is almost gone. 



CANNING TIMETABLE 



Hot pack — Continued 

3. Pack cakes hot. Leave 1 inch above meat in glass jars for head 
space,- % inch in tin cans. 

4. Skim fat off drippings and do not use the fat in canning. 

5. Add water to the meat juice and use in filling jars or cans. Leave 
about 1 inch above meat in jars for head space,- % inch in tin cans. 

6. Work out air bubbles with knife. Add more liquid, if needed, to 
cover meat. Be sure to leave 1* inch head space in jars, and have 
cans filled to top. 

7. Adjust lids on glass jars (p. 4),- seal tin cans. 

8. Process at once in the steam pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure 
(240° F.)— 

Pint jars 75 min. No. 2 cans 65 min. 

Quart jars 90 min. No. 2Vz and No. 3 cans ... 90 min. 

Raw pack 

This method is suitable only for tin cans. It is difficult to get canned 
ground meat out of glass jars when packed this way. 

1. Without forming cakes, pack raw ground meat solidly into tin cans 
level with the top. 

2. Place open cans in large vessel with water about 2 inches below can 
rim. Cover vessel and heat at slow boil until meat in all cans is 
steaming hot and medium done, about 75 minutes. If you have a 
thermometer, meat is heated enough when center of can registers 
170° F. Press meat down into cans about % inch below rim. 

3. Seal tin cans. 

4. Process at once in the steam pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure 
(240° F.)— 



SAUSAGE 

Use any tested sausage recipe, but omit sage as it is likely to give 
the canned sausage a bitter flavor. Go easy with other spices, onion, 
and garlic, because flavors change with processing and storing. 

Shape sausage meat into cakes. Precook, pack, and process like 
ground meat, hot packed. 

CORNED BEEF 

Hot pack 

1 . Wash the corned beef, cut into pieces suited to packing. 

2. Cover meat with cold water and bring to boil. If broth tastes very 
salty, drain and cover meat with fresh water, and parboil again. 

3. Pack hot meat. Leave about 1 inch above meat in glass jars for 
head space,- X A inch in tin cans. 

4. Cover meat with hot broth or hot water, using about !••> to % cup for 
each quart container. Leave 1 inch for head space in jars,- fill cans 
to top. 

5. Work out air bubbles with knife. Add more liquid, if needed, to 
cover meat. Be sure to leave 1 inch head space in jars, and have 
cans filled to top. 

6. Adjust lids on glass jars (p. 4),- seal tin cans. 

7. Process at once in the steam pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure 
(240° F.)— 

Pint jars 75 min. No. 2 cans 65 min. 

Quart jars 90 min. No. 2V2 and No. 3 cans. . 90 min. 



No. 2 cans 100 min. No. 2V2 and No. 3 cans 135 



mm. 



Acknowledgment is made to the research laboratories of 
the National Canners Association for aid in arriving at the 
processing times and temperatures given in this pamphlet. 



13 



CANNING TIMETABLE 



HEART AND TONGUE 

The heart and tongue are generally used as fresh meat. If you do wish 
to can them follow directions for beef, veal, pork, lamb as hot packed, 
with these differences: 

Heart. — Remove thick connective tissue before cutting into pieces. 

Tongue. — Drop tongue into boiling water and simmer about 45 minutes 
or until skin can be removed, before cutting into pieces. 

SOUP STOCK 

1 . Make fairly concentrated stock by covering bony pieces of chicken or 
other meat with lightly salted water and simmering until meat is tender. 
Don't cook too long, or soup will lose flavor. 

2. Skim off fat, remove all pieces of bone, but don't strain out meat and 
sediment. 

3. Pour hot stock into containers. Leave 1 inch at top of glass jars for 
head space; fill tin cans to top. 

4. Adjust lids on glass jars (p. 4); seal tin cans. 

5. Process at once in pressure canner at 10 pounds pressure (240° F.) — 

Pint jars 20 min. No. 2 cans 20 min. 

Quart jars 25 min. No. 2V2 and No. 3 cans. . 25 min. 



TO FIGURE YIELD OF CANNED 
MEAT FROM FRESH 

Here is a table to help you figure how many glass jars 
or tin cans of meat you will get from a given quantity of 
fresh meat: 

For a quart jar or No. 3 can, allow about — 

5 to 5V2 pounds of pork loin (untrimmed). 

5 to 5V2 pounds of beef rump (untrimmed). 

3 to 3V2 pounds of beef round (untrimmed). 

4V2 to 5V2 pounds of chicken (dressed, undrawn) to be 
canned with bone. 

7 to 8 pounds of chicken (dressed, undrawn) to be 
canned without bone. 





14 



WHEN CANNING IS DONE 



Look for leaks 

If you can in glass jars, test for leaks the day 
after canning when the jars are thoroughly 
cooled. (See picture story, p. 7.) 

If you can in tin, examine seals when you wipe 
the cooled cans. (See picture story, p. 9.) Also 
set out any can that buckles and breaks its 
seams — too little food in the can, or too fast 
cooling causes this type of leak. 

If any jar or can has leaked, either use the food 
at once or can it all over again, using another 
container: Heat the meat all through; then pack 
and process in the steam pressure canner for the 
same time as if meat were fresh. 

Label plainly 

Label each good glass jar or tin can, so that 
you will know the contents and date. If you 
canned more than one lot in a day, add the lot 
number. v Then if any meat spoils, destroy as 
directed (see last column, this page), and watch 
that lot of containers closely. 

To fasten paper labels on tin, use rubber 
cement; or, if labels are long enough, put glue 
along one end and wrap label smoothly around 
the can and lap the glued end over the other. 

Occasionally, a tin can packed too full bulges 
at the ends when processing is over. Mark such a 
can, so you won't confuse it later with any can 
that may bulge because food spoils in storage. 



Store cool and dry 

Protect jars and cans of meat against bad condi- 
tions in storage — heat, freezing, dampness. 

Heat is bad because if any bacteria do survive 
processing, the warmth may make them grow and 
multiply and spoil the food. Hot pipes behind 
a wall or strong direct sunlight sometimes make 
a shelf a hot spot. 

Freezing does not spoil canned meat, but it may 
crack a jar or break a seal and let in bacteria. 
In an unheated storage place, you can protect 
canned meat from freezing to some extent by 
covering with old carpet or a blanket, or wrapping 
in newspapers. 

Dampness is hard on tin cans or metal jar lids. 

GUARD AGAINST SPOILAGE 

Before opening any glass jar or tin can for use, 
inspect it well. 

If it*s a gloss !<"■ — A bulging lid or rubber 
ring, gas bubbles, leakage — any of these may be a 
sign of meat that has spoiled. 

If it's a tin can. — Press the end. Neither 
end should bulge or snap back, unless the can was 
sprung when processed. Both ends should look 
flat and curved slightly inward. Seams should be 
tight and clean, with no sign of leaks. 

When you open a jar or tin can. — Look for 
other signs inside a jar or can. Spurting liquid 



and "off" odor are danger signals. A tin can 
should be smooth and clean inside and show very 
little corrosion. 

If a metal lid of a jar or tin can has turned 
dark inside, this is not harmful. It is simply due 
to sulfur from the meat. 

The broth over canned meats may or may not 
be jellied. If it is liquid, this is not a sign of 
spoilage. 

It is possible for meat to contain the poison 
that causes botulism witnout showing any sign of 
spoilage. Heating will bring out a bad odor if 
botulinus toxin is present. 

If the steam pressure canner is in perfect order 
and if every canning recommendation given has 
been accurately followed, there is no danger of 
botulism. But as a safety precaution, before 
tasting, turn out the meat into a pan, add a little 
^ater if needed, cover the pan and boil 20 
minutes before adding any other ingredients. 
If any meat looks or smells queer after this, destroy 
without tasting. \ 

If meat is not to be used at once or is to be used 
in salads or sandwiches, after boiling, chill imme- 
diately in a refrigerator or other place as cold. 

Burn spoiled canned meat. Or add several 
spoonfuls of lye to the jar or can and let stand 24 
hours — out of reach of children or pets. Then 
bury food and container. Play safe. Don't give 
people, animals, or poultry a chance to taste 
spoiled canned meat. 



15 



MORE INFORMATION 

Other publications available from the Office 
of Information, U. S. Department of Agriculture, 
Washington 25, D. C, are — 

Freezing Meat and Poultry Products for Home 

Use. AWI-75. 
Beef on the Farm — Slaughtering, Cutting, 

Curing. Farmers' Bui. 1415. 
Pork on the Farm — Killing, Curing, and 

Canning. Farmers' Bui. 1186. 
Lamb and Mutton on the Farm. Farmers' 
Bui. 1807. 



Curing Pork. Country Style. AWI-108. 
Poultry Cooking. Farmers' Bui. 1888. 
Meat for Thrifty Meals. Farmers' Bui. 1908. 
Home Canning of Fruits and Vegetables. 

AVVI-93. 
Take Care of Pressure Canners. AWI-65. 

The following publication is available from the 
U. S. Department of the Interior, Washington 25, 
D. C. 

Recipes for Cooking Domestic Rabbit Meat. 
Wildlife Leaflet 240. 



Prepared by 

BUREAU OF HUMAN NUTRITION AND HOME ECONOMICS 
Agricultural Research Administration, U. S. Department of Agriculture 

Washington, D. C. 
February 1945 



This publication supersedes in part Farmers' Bulletin 1762, Home Canning of Fruits, Vegetables, 
and Meats. 

Directions for canning fruits and vegetables are given in Home Canning of Fruits and Vegetables. 
AWI-93. 



i 



16 



■ft U. S. GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE : 1945-0 — 628)6;